Як кава захищає мозок і пам’ять розповість психіатр

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Як кава захищає мозок і пам’ять
Як кава захищає мозок і пам’ять

Не секрет, що вживання кави може вплинути на рівень енергійності, процес травлення і навіть на спортивні показники. Хоча ці фізичні ефекти, як правило, досить швидкі, споживання кави також має деякі довгострокові наслідки для здоров’я мозку. Різні дослідження показують, що кава захищає мозок і навіть покращує функцію пам’яті та сповільнювати нейродегенеративні розлади, такі як деменція. 

Кава та здоров’я мозку

У 2017 році Бук’є ван Гелдер та її колеги повідомили про 676 чоловіків похилого віку, яких вони вивчали протягом 10 років, щоб перевірити, чи захищає їх кава від зниження когнітивних здібностей. Вони виявили, що чоловіки, які пили каву, мали менші розумові розлади, ніж ті, хто цього не робив. 

Найбільший ефект спостерігався у тих, хто випивав три чашки кави на день. Ті, хто пив менше кави, спостерігали не такі помітні ефекти.

В іншому дослідженні 2009 року Марджо Ескелінен та її колеги розповіли про групу людей, за якою вони стежили протягом 21 року, щоб перевірити, чи кава кава захищає мозок та розумове здоров’я. Вони виявили, що люди, які п’ють каву починаючи з середнього віку, мали нижчий ризик розвитку деменції та хвороби Альцгеймера в подальшому житті, порівняно з тими, хто не пив кави або споживав її лише до двох чашок на день. Найнижчий ризик старечого недоумства був виявлений у людей, які випивали від трьох до п’яти чашок кави на день. 

3 типи впливу кави на мозок

Існує ряд способів, за допомогою яких кава може діяти на здоров’я мозку. Ось лише декілька з них: 

  1. Кофеїн: ця речовина підвищує рівні серотоніну та ацетилхоліну, які можуть стимулювати роботу мозку та сприяти стабілізації гематоенцефалічного бар’єру. 
  2. Поліфеноли в каві запобігають пошкодженню тканин вільними радикалами, а також закупорці судин головного мозку. 
  3. Тригонелін: в кавових зернах містяться високі концентрації тригонеліну, що також може активувати антиоксиданти, захищаючи тим самим кровоносні судини мозку.

Яка кава краща за інші?

Незважаючи на користь напою, не кожна речовина в каві дійсно корисна. Нефільтрована кава містить натуральні олії, які називаються дитерпенами, що підвищують рівень холестерину ЛПНЩ. Це потенційно може призвести до потовщення та зменшення еластичності стінок артерій мозку (хоча вони мають деякі корисні протизапальні властивості).

Акриламід, хімічна речовина, яка утворюється під час смаження кавових зерен, може пригнічувати нейромедіацію, руйнувати нейрони дофаміну та підвищувати окислювальний стрес. Кількість акриламіду в каві може змінюватися, але темно смажені свіжі кавові зерна, як правило, мають найменшу кількість. 

Висновки

Оскільки в каві є широкий спектр хімічних речовин, дослідники не можуть точно сказати, чи може кава захистити від деменції насправді. Однак при помірному споживанні є більше хороших ефектів, ніж поганих. Плюс, від неї може спостерігатись користь в подальшому житті.

Рекомендується випивати від двох до чотирьох чашок на день або менше 400 мг на день, а вживання темно смажених свіжомелених кавових зерен може зменшити зіткнення з небажаними хімічними речовинами.

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